Sci-Fi Novel Portrays Convicts Condemned to Cretaceous

Thursday, July 29, 2021

Dan Busby shows what happens when physics-shattering technological breakthroughs are used to reform and decongest the United States’ penitentiary system. The result is a sci-fi smorgasbord that blends “Jurassic Park” with “Con Air,” following a wrongfully convicted man who finds himself serving his sentence in the Cretaceous. He is "Lost in Time: Trapped in a Prehistoric World" and must survive a primordial wilderness rife with ravenous reptiles.

The year is 2040, the United States corrections system that once boasted one of the world's largest prison populations has found a way to save money and free up space. By using time machines to send inmates back through time. The technology is exclusively used by the government, designed and maintained by men like Jimmy Dantly. When a freak accident leads to the death of a co-worker, Jimmy is suspected as the evidence points to him. He is shocked when the trial ends with his conviction, where he is sentenced by the judge to be sent to the Cretaceous - the time of the dinosaurs and the era of Tyrannosaurus Rex.

He finds himself in this land before time, hunted by prehistoric predators and other hostile wildlife. Due to a stroke of luck, he connects with a fellow prisoner who has survived there for a year. The only thing they have are high-powered rifles, given to them by sympathetic time machine crews. Equipped with little else, they must rely on their skills, their determination, and devise a way to not only survive their hostile and violent environment but somehow escape the time period.

With "Lost in Time: Trapped in a Prehistoric World" Busby treats his readers to a story of wilderness survival and desperation unlike any other, showing how ingenious the mind can be and how unconquerable the human spirit truly is - even in an untamed land ruled by dinosaurs.

About the Author
Dan Busby loves adventure, answering the call of the wild and scaling great heights, generally enjoying the great outdoors. He is a registered nurse and fulfills his longing for adventure by penning riveting stories. He has been interviewed on radio by Al Cole and Kate Delaney, and has also been featured in a Walla Walla Union Bulletin newspaper article. Busby is also a musician and connects his talent for music and writing.


Can Internal Organs of Prehistoric Species Be Preserved?

Wednesday, July 28, 2021

(Photo : Russell Bicknell)

Paleontologists Discover Fossilized Central Nervous System of 310 Million-Years-Old Arthropod.

In the book 'On The Origin of Species,' Charles Darwin said that there are imperfections that will be met as we unearth prehistoric organisms for study. Darwin implies that there is no chance that we could get a perfectly preserved fossil unless it would be conserved under the precise circumstances that it needs to be able to survive other factors throughout the generation while it was buried.

Paleontology experts are successful in finding well-preserved fossils over a century after Darwin wrote his book. Among the finest discoveries of the fossil-hunting community is the preservation of soft-bodied organisms, like mollusks which include the jellyfish. This proves that it is actually possible though the question of whether the internal organs could be fossilized still remains unanswered.

The anatomy of animals is theorized to be delicate, and there are a few accounts of the internal organs being preserved in fossilized species. But according to the study published in the journal Geology, entitled "Central Nervous System of a 310-m.y.-old Horseshoe Crab: Expanding the Taphonomic Window for Nervous System Preservation," the internal organs of one of the invertebrate species, or arthropods, can be preserved in its finest state.

This prehistoric arthropod discovered is a horseshoe crab that has roamed our planet 310 million years ago. The horseshoe crab was added with the line of organisms that have their organs intact, with its brain being the one discovered in its complete form. The intricate fossilization of the species' central nervous system gave a better understanding to the experts on how to properly preserve an organ.

Fossilized Brain of Prehistoric Arthropods Well-Preserved

The brain of the horseshoe crab, like many other species with their organ intact, are usually found to be perfectly intact in amber deposits and Burgess Shale. Amber somewhat resembles the modern-day resin, but its formation originates from tree barks that trap any organisms in their perfect form.

Ambers fossilize an organism in the best way possible. It can show the anatomical detail of the animal, as minimal decay takes place on its body. The horseshoe crab, fortunately, was trapped in an amber fossil. This has opened opportunities for paleontologists to conduct a comprehensive study on the arthropod's intact brain, even to the tiniest detail the central nervous system contains. One of the oldest prehistoric arthropods that were discovered in an amber fossil dates back 230 million years ago, which matches the Triassic period.

The Burgess Shale-type deposits, compared to the amber fossils, are identified to preserve species much older than the Triassic period. Most of the species recorded in the Burgess Shale fossils are marine arthropods, which date back to 500-520 million years ago, in the Cambrian period. Combing the amber and Burgess Shale-type fossils, scientists can have the data on the oldest animals known, as well as the information regarding the evolutionary history and origin studies.

The Euproops danae, also known as the horseshoe crab, was unearthed in the Mazon Creek located in Illinois. Most of the subjects found in the area are intact because of the siderite, a mineral composed of iron carbonate. According to The Conversation, the newly discovered prehistoric arthropod will be an addition to the studies regarding the anatomy of biological organisms in the prehistoric era, and how these extinct species evolved through time.


Desmodus draculae: 100,000-Year-Old Fossil of Giant Vampire Bat Found in Argentina

Tuesday, July 27, 2021

Desmodus draculae in a burrow of a giant sloth. Image credit: Daniel Boh / Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Miramar.

Paleontologists in Argentina have found a fossilized jaw of the extinct bat species Desmodus draculae inside an ancient burrow of a giant sloth.

Desmodus draculae is an extinct species of leaf-nosed bat that inhabited Central and South Americas from the Pleistocene Epoch until the early Holocene epoch.

First described in 1988, its fossils are known from Argentina, Mexico, Ecuador, Brazil, Venezuela, Belize, and Bolivia.

Desmodus draculae had a wingspan of up to 50 cm (20 inches) and a body mass of 60 g, making it the largest known vampire bat of all time.

It belongs to the subfamily Desmodontinae (vampire bats), which also includes three extinct and three living species.

“The size of Desmodus draculae was larger than that of a computer keyboard and significantly larger than that of its living relatives,” said Dr. Santiago Brizuela, a paleontologist at the Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata and CONICET.

The food source of Desmodus draculae and other vampire bats is blood, a dietary trait called hematophagy.

“Their name came from the legends of the Transailvania and its creepy Count Dracula,” said Dr. Mariano Magnussen, a paleontologist at the Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Miramar.

“In reality, they are peaceful animals that feed on the blood of animals, and sometimes humans, for a few minutes without causing discomfort.”

“The only bad thing is that they can transmit rabies or other diseases if they are infected. Surely their prehistoric representatives had similar behaviors.”

The fossilized jaw of Desmodus draculae. Image credit: Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Miramar.

The new fossil of Desmodus draculae is at least 100,000 years old (Late Pleistocene epoch).

It was found at a paleontological site near southeastern Buenos Aires in Argentina.

“The jaw of Desmodus draculae was found inside a cave or burrow 1.2 m (3.9 feet) in diameter attributed to a giant sloth of the family Mylodontidae, such as Scelidotherium,” said Dr. Daniel Tassara, a paleontologist at the Museo Municipal de Ciencias Naturales Pachamama.

“We do not know if this vampire entered the cave to feed, take refuge, or was prey to another animal.”

Desmodus draculae was the last of the giant flying mammals. It became extinct during the colonial period, around 1820, possibly as a consequence from the Little Ice Age,” the researchers said.

The team’s paper was published in the journal Ameghiniana.


Santiago Brizuela & Daniel A. Tassara. 2021. New Record of the Vampire Desmodus draculae (Chiroptera) from the Late Pleistocene of Argentina. Ameghiniana 58 (2): 169-176; doi: 10.5710/AMGH.30.12.2020.3379


Every Dinosaur Confirmed (& Rumored) For Jurassic World: Dominion

Sunday, July 25, 2021

Jurassic World: Dominion is set to include an exciting cast of prehistoric creatures. Here's a look at the dinosaurs confirmed and rumored to appear.

Jurassic World: Dominion is set to include an exciting cast of dinosaurs and other prehistoric creatures. The third entry in the Jurassic World trilogy, and the sixth Jurassic feature overall, will release in 2022, four years after the debut of 2018's Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom. Dominion is also being touted as a finale of sorts for the series and will conclude the story that began all the way back in 1993's Jurassic Park.

Following Fallen Kingdom's escape-focused ending, Jurassic World: Dominion will follow the cast of the previous Jurassic World movies and returning favorites from the Jurassic Park trilogy as they struggle to survive in a world where dinosaurs have finally reached the mainland. With the genetically modified creatures no longer restricted to a remote island or a contained facility, the world must come to decide what the ultimate fate of these once-extinct beasts will be. Described by director Colin Trevorrow as a science thriller, the film will bring the Jurassic story to its dramatic and long-awaited ending.

No Jurassic Park or Jurassic World film would be complete without a roster of dinosaurs, both new and familiar. Among all the specific dinosaurs already confirmed to return, such as the terrifying T-Rex and Blue the Velociraptor, there are several brand-new dinosaurs that are making their first appearances in the franchise. There are even a few unconfirmed dinosaurs that, if rumors are true, might just pop up in the film. Here's a complete look at every dinosaur confirmed or speculated to appear in Jurassic World: Dominion.


It wouldn't be a Jurassic film without a T-Rex, and Jurassic World: Dominion is no exception. The iconic predator is the unofficial mascot for the series, with its skeleton serving as the logo for the park both in real life and in films. Of all the T-Rexes in the franchise, none is more beloved than the first Rex from Jurassic Park. Dubbed "Rexy", this is the same T-Rex that fought the Indominus in Jurassic World and escaped into the wild at the end of Fallen Kingdom. Rexy will face new challenges in Dominion and is already confirmed to have an extended sequence set at a drive-in theater during the film.


After the T-Rex, the other most iconic dinosaur in the Jurassic franchise is undoubtedly the Velociraptor. Jurassic World introduced audiences to a specific raptor named Blue, who was trained from birth by Chris Pratt's Owen Grady. At the end of Fallen Kingdom, Blue escaped into the wild alongside a horde of other prehistoric beasts, and Dominion will continue to follow her journey and develop her relationship with Owen.


One of the most memorable dinosaurs from the original Jurassic Park was the Gallimimus, a bird-like creature that traveled in large herds. In Jurassic Park, a big group of Gallimimus is seen stampeding across a meadow on the island, trying in vain to avoid an attack from the recently freed T-Rex. The Gallimimus was among the dinosaurs confirmed to have been saved in Fallen Kingdom prior to Jurassic World's destruction and was able to escape onto the mainland. Although its numbers have been reduced, it's possible that Jurassic World: Dominion will see the Gallimimus make a comeback as a species.


Although not a dinosaur, pterosaurs like the Pteranodon have a significant place in the Jurassic franchise. After being briefly glimpsed in The Lost World: Jurassic Park, the creatures played a huge role as one of the main antagonistic "dinos" in Jurassic Park III. In fact, the Pteranodon is one of the only genetically bred creatures from Jurassic Park to actually make it to the mainland years before Fallen Kingdom, making them ideally suited to succeed in their new, non-island habitat.


One of the more threatening dinosaurs to inhabit the volcanic Isla Nublar, Isla Sorna, and now the mainland is the Compsognathus, or "Compy" for short. These little dinos might only be the size of a chicken, but when they attack in a swarm, they can be deadly. The beginning of The Lost World showed a group of Compies attacking a little girl on Isla Sorna, and there's no telling what trouble these tiny terrors will cause on the mainland.


These peaceful but heavily armored plant-eaters have made appearances in multiple Jurassic films before, and have proven themselves to be more than capable of defending themselves. With Ankylosaurus loose in the modern world, nothing will be safe, be it an encroaching predator or an unaware vehicle.


One of the breakout prehistoric stars of Jurassic World, the Mosasaurus has quickly become one of the most iconic animals in the entire franchise, even getting to kill the mutant Indominus Rex. It also holds the distinction of being the first of the park's residents to break free and leave the island behind. The Mosasaurus is presumably still cruising the oceans in Dominion and is likely to remain an unpredictable force of nature within the sequel.


The carnivorous Allosaurus made its debut in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, where at least five examples of the species were shown to have made it back to the mainland alive. One of these surviving Allosaurus was purchased in the film's dinosaur auction, and another was observed doing battle with a stubborn Nasutoceratops in the short film Battle at Big Rock.


The Nasutoceratops, a relative of the more famous three-horned Triceratops, made its Jurassic World debut in the short film Battle at Big Rock, where it battled an Allosaurus. The creature is confirmed to return in Jurassic World: Dominion.

New Dinosaurs In Jurassic World: Dominion

In addition to returning favorites, there are several new dinosaurs that have been confirmed to appear in Dominion. These include the Lystrosaurus (a small beaked dinosaur) and the Atrociraptor (a 6.6-foot relative of the Velociraptor). The film is also set to begin with a 65-million-year flashback sequence that will include several other dinosaurs, including Dreadnoughtus, Iguanodon, Moros, Oviraptor, the pterosaur Quetzalcoatlus, and the massive Giganotosaurus, which is seen killing the T-Rex that eventually supplies its DNA to the cloned Rexy.

Rumored Dinosaurs In Jurassic World: Dominion

Multiple dinosaur names have come up in rumors regarding the prehistoric cast of the film. The iconic Dilophosaurus that killed Dennis Nedry in the original Jurassic Park has long been rumored to return and even made a cameo via a hologram in Jurassic World. Another Jurassic Park favorite is the Triceratops, which made a huge impression in 1993. The creature has since appeared in several other films but remains unconfirmed for the final entry in the franchise. Lastly, there's the most infamous predator from any Jurassic film: the Spinosaurus. Although referenced in Jurassic World with a massive skeleton, the idea of bringing the Spinosaurus back as a surprise dinosaur in Jurassic World: Dominion is one that many fans want to happen, and some rumors suggest that the creators behind the film might share that opinion.


“Jurassic World: Dominion”: The 8 Biggest Movie Questions Answered

Saturday, July 24, 2021

It will take some time due to the coronavirus, but there will come a time when we can enjoy Jurassic World: Dominion in cinemas. The movie promises to be the biggest in the franchise to date.

Once again directed by Colin Trevorrow, he offers us a special project with heroes from the first and second trilogy. Today we tell you everything you need to know about the movie.

1. Where is this trailer?
This will be one of the questions you may still have. for which we do not have a direct answer. Universal has yet to announce a release date for the first trailer. However, there was an IMAX preview of several minutes, which showed that the film began 65 million years ago.

2. When playing Jurassic World: Dominion Wonders?
The film begins with an introduction set in the Cretaceous period, but quickly dives into the present: Jurassic World: Dominion in 2022.

3. Who’s in it Jurassic World: Dominion?
Jurassic World: Dominion as a culmination of Jurassic World Trilogy and brings the cast Scientist Along with the Jurassic Park films. The protagonists are again Chris Pratt and Bryce Dallas Howard, but they are joined by Laura Dern, Sam Neal and Jeff Goldblum.

4. What is the plot Jurassic World: Dominion?
Dinosaurs now roam freely across continental America. We see two stories unfold: one about “old” acquaintances and one about “new” heroes. As a result, it instantly becomes a thriller that takes place all over the world. For example, they registered in the UK, British Columbia and Malta.

5. What are dinosaurs Jurassic World: Dominion?
Confirmed dinosaurs in the movie are as follows: Allosaurus, Ankylosaurus, Atrociraptor, Compsognathus, Dreadnoughtus, Gallimimus, Giganotosaurus, Iguanodon, Lystrosaurus, Moros, Mosasaurus, Nasutoceratops, Oviraptorosaur, Quetzalcoaptros,.

6. Is there any hybrid in it Jurassic World: Dominion?
Indominus Rex and Indoraptor were the two hybrid dinosaurs we’ve seen so far. But this, according to Trevorrow, is not the trend that will continue Jurassic World: Dominion. We only see “real” dinosaurs.

7. Is Jurassic World: Dominion The last movie in the franchise?
No, definitely not. It’s the culmination of a six-part story, but – as we know thanks to one of the producers – it’s also making a new movie. This means that we may expect more in the coming years JurassicMovies to enjoy.

8. When Jurassic World: Dominion To see in the cinema?
The movie is supposed to hit theaters in June 2022. Universal Pictures doesn’t want a hybrid version, so just assume the movie will hit cinemas.


Pterosaurs were Capable of Flapping Flight during Earliest Phases of Life, Study Suggests

Saturday, July 24, 2021

Flock of Cretaceous-period pterosaurs Pterodaustro guinazui. Image credit: Mark Witton.

The humerus bones of the newly-hatched pterosaurs were stronger than those of adults pterosaurs, indicating that they would have been strong enough for flight, according to new research led by Dr. Darren Naish, a paleontologist in the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Southampton.

“There have been several debates about whether juvenile pterosaurs could fly, but this is the first time it’s been studied through a more biomechanical point of view,” said senior author Dr. Elizabeth Martin-Silverstone, a paleontologist in the School of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol.

“It’s exciting to discover that even though their wings may have been small, they were built in a way that made them strong enough to fly.”

In the study, Dr. Naish, Dr. Martin-Silverstone and their colleague, Dr. Mark Witton from the School of the Environment, Geography and Geosciences at the University of Portsmouth, modeled the flying abilities of newly-hatched pterosaurs.

They used previously obtained wing measurements from four established hatchling and embryo fossils from two species of Cretaceous-period pterosaurs: Pterodaustro guinazui and Sinopterus dongi.

The paleontologists also compared these wing measurements with those of adults from the same species and compared the strength of the humerus bone, which forms part of the wing, of three hatchlings with those of 22 adult pterosaurs.

They found that hatchling humerus bones were stronger than those of many adult pterosaurs, indicating that they would have been strong enough for flight.

“We found that these tiny animals — with 25 cm (10 inches) wingspans and bodies that could neatly fit in your hand — were very strong, capable fliers,” Dr. Witton said.

“Their bones were strong enough to sustain flapping and take-off, and their wings were ideally shaped for powered — as opposed to gliding — flight.”

“However, they would not have flown exactly like their parents simply because they were so much smaller: flight capabilities are strongly influenced by size and mass, and so pterosaur hatchlings, being hundreds of times smaller than their parents, were likely slower, more agile fliers than the wide-ranging, but less manoeuvrable adults.”

The researchers also found that while hatchlings had long, narrow wings suited to long-distance flight, their wings were shorter and broader than those of adult pterosaurs, with a larger wing area relative to hatchling mass and body size.

These wing dimensions may have made hatchlings less efficient than adult pterosaurs at long-distance travel, but may have resulted in them being more agile fliers, enabling them to suddenly change direction and speed.

“The agile flying style of hatchling pterosaurs may have enabled them to rapidly escape predators and made them better suited to chasing nimbler prey and flying amongst dense vegetation than adult pterosaurs,” the scientists said.

The study was published in the journal Scientific Reports.


D. Naish et al. 2021. Powered flight in hatchling pterosaurs: evidence from wing form and bone strength. Sci Rep 11, 13130; doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-92499-z


This Ram 'T-Rex' Is The Perfect 6x6 For Touring Jurassic Park

Friday, July 23, 2021

The world's fastest production pickup gets six wheels and an iconic movie livery in a digital artist's rendering.

The Jurassic Park movies are filled with every kind of car imaginable—modified off-roaders, classic muscle cars, even luxury rides from Germany. In the end, though, the vehicles merely exist as fodder for the dinosaurs to trample over and dominate. Now, a new, imaginary Jurassic Park vehicle has emerged that, despite being a digital rendering, looks capable of taking on even the fiercest dinosaurs populating Isla Nublar.

World's Fastest Pickup Gets Six-Wheels And New Paint

The Ram 1500 TRX is already a potent truck when it rolls off the factory line. The 2021 model has a 6.2-liter supercharged Hemi capable of launching the pickup 0-60 mph in just 4.5 seconds. While it's hard to imagine turning the dial up even more on this insane pickup, one digital artist took up the challenge to create a TRX that's on another level.

Self-proclaimed 'American Muscle Enthusiast' Timothy Adry Emmanuel, who goes by @adry53customs on Instagram, reimagined the TRX as a full-blown 6x6 covered in the iconic Jurassic Park livery seen on the Ford Explorers in the original film. Appropriately, Emmanuel renamed it "T-Rex" and dropped it in one of the film's most memorable scenes: the first tyrannosaurus rex encounter.

Features In Rendering Are Closer Than They Appear

Shod in BFGoodrich all-terrain tires, the behemoth looks ready to kick up lots of dirt and mud for an epic escape. Plus, this one's got some spares in the trunk in case things get hairy—though it's unconfirmed whether Dr. Ian Malcolm has enough room to sprawl out in back during the getaway.

It's unusual to see a TRX painted so brightly, but the livery looks perfect. Even the red pattern on the front brings out certain features more, such as the hood scoop.

The water puddles also add an eerie effect to every angle shown, which each contain a reflection of the TRX's colorful exterior without distracting from the truck itself.

A 6x6 Ready For The Apocalypse

Emmanuel's creation isn't so farfetched, either, as Apocalypse Manufacturing just revealed its "Warlord" Hellcat-powered Ram TRX 6x6 vehicles this week. The Florida-based company bumps the pickup's horsepower up to 702 and shaves the 0-60 mph time down to 4 seconds. All a Warlord needs now is a Jurassic Park themed livery, and it's set to take on dinosaurs and the apocalypse—so pretty much anything.


Jurassic Park & 9 Other Films That Prove Practical Effects Age Better Than CGI

Friday, July 23, 2021

Computer imagery is here to stay and grows more impressive by the year, but it will never be as timeless as Hollywood's best practical effects.

The film industry has worked hard for over a century to make movies and the cinematic experience one of the most rewarding and communal forms of entertainment. It’s fascinating to see the different trends that take over movies, determine the most popular genres, and play a factor in what will become the next big blockbuster.

The budgets for movies continues to expand at an alarming rate, but this excess doesn’t always improve a picture and can even push filmmakers to defer to easier alternatives. One of the most egregious cases of this is the rampant use of CG effects as a superior way to create movie magic. CG has come a long way, but there’s still a level of realism that’s present in practical effects that cannot be topped.

10 - Steven Spielberg Makes Dinosaurs Feel Like Reality With Jurassic Park’s Practical Effects

The best films know how to blend together practical effects with CG revisions in a subtle way that blurs the lines between the two approaches. What Steven Spielberg accomplished in Jurassic Park blew the audience's minds and opened up a whole new world for movies. It’s astonishing to consider that Jurassic Park’s T-Rex attack is often done with a real animatronic creation.

The reality of this allows the T-Rex to destroy the vehicle and make it feel like a real attack. There's a level of weight and destruction that'd be impossible to replicate with a purely digital dinosaur.

9 - A Remarkable Practical Head Explosion Is Scanners’ Selling Point

Sometimes a special effect is so well done that it defines the entire movie. Scanners is an effective sci-fi/horror hybrid from early on in David Cronenberg's career, but the movie's centerpiece is an exaggerated practical effect that's still praised.

Scanners revolves around a group of special individuals with powerful psychic powers. A character's head explodes early on in the movie as a result of a psychic attack and it's a startling display. Cronenberg practically pulls this off with a dummy that's full of butcher meat, which is then shot in the back of the head with an actual shotgun.

8 - Terminator 2 Has Linda Hamilton Dig Around In Schwarzenegger’s Head For Clues

James Cameron is a master of cinema that continually pushes not just the medium, but its technology, to exciting places. Terminator 2: Judgment Day still reflects some of Cameron's most accomplished work and it's full of astonishing sequences that become even more impressive due to how they're practically done.

The action scenes are exceptional, but another highlight is the moment when Sarah Connor removes a microchip from a hole in the T-800's head. The scene is brilliantly pulled off with a combination of practical prosthetics and a window with separate actors that masquerades as the mirror that Arnold Schwarzenegger faces.

7 - Kubrick Figures Out How To Defy Gravity In 2001: A Space Odyssey’s Jog

Stanley Kubrick is an auteur of cinema who is responsible for some of the most prolific movies of all time. Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey is considered to be one of the greatest triumphs of science fiction, but his trippy, contemplative space film is even more staggering when it's considered how much of it is practically done.

An iconic moment in the movie features a continuous jog throughout a space station where the astronaut seems to perpetually defy gravity. Kubrick accomplishes this through the construction of a giant hamster wheel that rotates around the camera to create this gravity-defying visual.

6 - Wes Craven Uses Over 500 Gallons Of Fake Blood To Create An Iconic Krueger Kill

The horror genre features some of the most creative uses of practical effects during the 1970s and '80s. The entire Nightmare on Elm Street series is full of inventive practical effects that accentuate Freddy Krueger's supernatural powers.

However, one of the best sequences is in the first film in the series when a tidal wave of blood exits from Glenn's bed. Wes Craven makes this insane visual a reality with over 500 gallons of fake blood that get funneled through a hole in the bed, which is in turn on a set that's on a gimbal and turned upside down.

5 - Star Wars: A New Hope’s Suspenseful Trench Run Is Entirely Practical

It's honestly a little jarring to reflect on how much of the original Star Wars trilogy makes effective use of practical effects since Lucas so comprehensively turns to CG effects for the Prequel Trilogy. Lucas eventually embraces CG and heavy digital filmmaking, but this only makes movies like A New Hope more magical in retrospect.

One of Star Wars' biggest scenes is the flight through the claustrophobic Death Star trench. Surprisingly, Lucas achieves this through the use of to-scale miniatures, a detailed X-Wing model, and creative use of trestle tables.

4 - The Thing’s Transforming Alien Uses Practical Effects That Still Seem Impossible

Anybody that's interested in practical effects needs to make John Carpenter's The Thing mandatory viewing. Carpenter, like Cronenberg, was a major figure during the 1980s when it came to innovative practical effects work. However, the visuals created in The Thing truly establish a new cinematic standard.

It'd be impressive enough if The Thing created one disgusting monster, but Carpenter's movie features an alien that perpetually transforms into different disturbing creatures. Every one of these changes is a technical marvel, but the final beast is still proof that practical effects can top anything done in CG.

3 - Practical Effects Help Make Alien’s Chestburster Into An Iconic Movie Moment

With news of an Alien television series on the way, it's troublesome to think of a fully CG Xenomorph that loses the tactile nature of what made the original beast in Ridley Scott's sci-fi horror film so effective. Alien prides itself in its practical effects.

Giger's work on the actual Xenomorph is incredible, but an even more technically impressive and intricate moment is in the famous Chestburster sequence. The clever combination of a blood-filled prosthetic torso and a well-rigged puppet add eerie authenticity to the suspenseful moment.

2 - Cronenberg’s The Fly Is Body Horror At Its Most Gruesome With The Brundlefly Effects

David Cronenberg is regarded as the king of body horror cinema and pretty much any of the director's earlier movies feature practical effects that seem too ridiculous to be real. Videodrome, The Brood, and Dead Ringers all have disturbing practical effects, but it's hard to top what's done in Cronenberg's The Fly.

Jeff Goldblum's deteriorating monster is a true triumph. It's easy to see why the make-up work won an Oscar and it’s still held up as a high mark. It seems futile to remake The Fly because nothing will top the practical effects in Cronenberg’s version.

1 - An American Werewolf In London Practically Creates The Most Famous Transformation Sequence

Werewolf movies have become a bit of a lost art because they usually come down to the transformation sequence. It's incredibly difficult to pull off such a process in a manner that's not full of edits that cheat the metamorphosis. John Landis' An American Werewolf in London immediately becomes a classic piece of cinema once Griffin Dune undergoes his lycanthropy transformation.

Rick Baker's practical effects combine prosthetics, make-up, and robotics to make it look like this man's body is actually turning into a monster. This is still the zenith of transformation sequences and it honestly may never be topped.


New Mysterious Species Called ‘Microsaur’ Discovered By Paleontologists

Saturday, July 24, 2021

This handout image released by Carelton University shows an illustration of a microsaur Photograph:( AFP )

There’s some new interesting news in the world of paleontology! New species have been discovered by palaeontologists called microsaur from a 308 million years old fossils.

As reported by AFP, the new species ‘microsaur’ is a small, lizard-like animal that roamed the Earth before dinosaurs made their appearance. Microsaurs lived during the Carboniferous Period, when the forebears of modern mammals and reptiles, called amniotes, first appeared.

"Microsaurs have recently become important in understanding the origins of amniotes," said co-author Arjan Mann, a post-doctoral research fellow at the Smithsonian Institution. "A lot of these microsaurs have been thought to be either ancestor of amphibians or ancestors of reptiles." Researchers also made use of highly sensitive imaging techniques called scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to get a closer look at the fossil.

In other related news, researchers recently discovered a preserved dinosaur sitting atop a nest of its own eggs with fossilized babies inside, for the first time ever. The discovery has been published as a scientific paper in the journal Science Bulletin and the fossil consists of an incomplete skeleton of a large, presumably adult oviraptorid crouched in a bird-like brooding posture over a clutch of at least 24 eggs.

Another study revealed that 2.5 billion T. rex roamed the Earth over the course of a million years, not all at once, but with about 20,000 at any given time. Scientists made calculations based on body size, sexual maturity and the creatures' energy needs. They measured the amount of energy T. rex needed to stay alive and added their estimates.


How The Spinosaurus Was Supposed To Die In Jurassic Park 3

Thursday, July 22, 2021

The mighty Spinosaurus just kind of vanishes from Jurassic Park 3's narrative, but it was originally planned to have a grand death scene.

The mighty Spinosaurus just kind of vanishes from Jurassic Park 3's narrative, but it was originally planned to have a grand death scene. Each Jurassic Park and World movie has featured dinosaurs not seen in prior installments, and that makes perfect sense, as things might get boring if there weren't any new dino species around to supply additional threats. That was of course upped even further in Jurassic World and its sequel, in the form of genetically created hybrids like the Indominus Rex and Indoraptor.

The big addition to the dinosaur gene pool in Jurassic Park 3 was the Spinosaurus, a creature fully capable of hunting prey both on land and in the water. The largest known species of carnivorous dinosaur, the Spinosaurus earned lots of derision from franchise fans for engaging in what amounted to a one-sided squashing of a Tyrannosaurus Rex, the world's most famous dinosaur, and the mascot for the Jurassic Park brand. Fans love the T-Rex, and to see the Spinosaurus beat a T-Rex like a pushover made many resent the new dino.

Making matters worse was the fact that the Spinosaurus doesn't get any kind of death scene to serve as catharsis for those who weren't happy about its new status at the top of the dinosaur food chain. The massive creature just got spooked by some fire and made a tactical retreat. It turns out though that the Spinosaurus was originally going to be taken down by another kind of fan-favorite dinosaur.

In Jurassic Park 3, the Spinosaurus makes a final attack attempt on Alan Grant and the Kirby family while they're attempting to travel to safety on a boat. The angry beast does major damage to the vessel, and nearly kills the humans it's after. Eventually, Grant is able to shoot it with a flare gun, which doesn't hurt the Spinosaurus but does cause the fuel that had leaked out of the wrecked boat to catch fire. The Spinosaurus swims away and isn't seen again. However, a deleted scene gave the creature a much more violent death, in which Grant used the Velociraptor Resonation Chamber he'd found earlier to summon a pack of raptors, who attacked and killed the Spinosaurus.

While that might sound unlikely, as helpfully laid out by Klayton Fioriti on YouTube, Grant is able to use the device to make a call that effectively tells any raptors in the area that the Spinosaurus has stolen raptor eggs. This leads a huge group of raptors to arrive, numbering more than 20, and attack the Spinosaurus all at once, ripping and tearing at its flesh, and eventually killing it. One raptor briefly considers the escaping humans but decides to keep chowing down on Spinosaurus steak. Sadly, it seems this death scene was never shot, getting changed in a later script revision. It definitely would've given the Spinosaurus subplot a more satisfying ending, and Jurassic Park 3 a thrilling additional moment.